PD 3.0 is 5V up to 20V and 3A to 5A (15-100W). It is a more elegant and universal solution because it allows micro-voltage and amperage steps instead of the fixed voltages. In this way, it can deliver higher voltages and lower amperages.
USB On-the-Go (OTG) simply means ports that can send data/power upstream or downstream. USB-C cables are full-duplex; it is the devices that may be half-duplex.
Fast or Quick Charge (QC) for smartphones (note these do not support data transfer like PD)
A quick refresher: Volts x Amps = Watts (OHMS law), 1000 milliamps per Amp (mA), mAh is the total mA the battery can deliver for one hour.
Volts are a lineal measure of voltage. Amps are how fast that voltage flows into the battery and Watts – well that is the overall volume or charge ability of V x A. Note its not so much the Voltage that can kill a person but the Amperage – 10mA can give you a painful shock and 100-200mAh can kill.
There are a few confusing issues like efficiency and loss due to heat but suffice to say that all smartphone batteries are 3.3V and pouring in 5V will not hurt them.
One final measurement is smartphone battery capacity in milliamp hours or mAh. Simply put a 4000mAh battery can deliver 4A for one hour. If your device had a power draw at idle of say 400mA, then it would drain the battery in 10 hours. Similarly, if you want to charge that battery at 10W (5Vx2A) it would take 2 hours to fill (but the reality is that lower charging efficiencies make that even longer).
From 2019 new Google Android smartphones (to comply with Google Mobile Services) must have a USB Type-C port with full interoperability with chargers that are compliant with the USB-PD 2.0 specifications. Older micro-USB is slowing being phased out except those with lower-powered MediaTek SoCs.
Most, if not all QC technology (except OPPO) uses exponential charging. It floods the battery with the highest volt/amps it will take until about 50% full then steps down to 9V to 75-80% when the standard 5V/2A kicks in. This is to prevent battery fires and help preserve battery life.
Qualcomm Quick Charge
QC requires a compatible Qualcomm SD SoC and a phone that has a QC charging circuit. Standards are backwards compatible.
- 1.0 – 5V/2A (10W)
- 2.0 – 5/9/12 (18W) for latter SD2XX/4XX/6XX up to SD810
- 3.0 – dynamic 200mV increments 3.6-20V up to 18W – SD4XX to SD821
- 4.0 – dynamic 20mV increments 3.6-20V/2.5-3A (27W) – SD6XX, 710 and 835 and PD 2.0 compatible
- 4+ – for SD670, 845/855. PD 3.0 compatible. Introduces Dual charge paths like OPPO VOOC
OPPO (also known as Dash or Warp Charge (OnePlus) and used in vivo and realme
A proprietary solution requires a special dual-channel ‘green’ insert USB-A cable to work with dual batteries; otherwise, it delivers half the amperage. You can use QC compatible chargers, but the maximum is PD 2.0 at 10W.
- VOOC 2.0: 5V/4A (20W)
- SuperVOOC: 5V/4A – Find X
- VOOC 3.0: 5V/5A (25W) for OPPO Reno
- VOOC 4.0 (not released) is 5V/6A (30W) (also called Warp Charge)
- Coming 10V/5A (50W)
It is a proprietary solution, but QC 3.0 chargers will give reasonable speed. We note that Huawei SuperCharge batteries run hotter than most during charge.
- V 1.0 – 4.5V/5A (22.5W) for P and Mate 10 series – need purple insert USB-A cable. Also has 5/9V/3A for PD 2.0 compatibility at 27W
- V2.0 (4.5-10V at 4/4.5/5 – maximum 40W) for Mate 30/Pro – PD 2.0 charges at 27W
Samsung Adaptive Fast Charge
Since the Note7 issue, Samsung has been ultra-cautious about battery pedigree (build) and fast charging. In all our tests, Samsung phones maintain the lowest battery temperature, and we think that is best. Note that all chargers support similar Qualcomm QC 2.0 or 3.0 standards as the phones can use Exynos or Qualcomm chips depending on the market.
- 5/9V and 2A (18W) for its older Galaxy/Note series phones (QC 2.0)
- 5/9 and 3/2.77A (25W) plus PD 3.3/5.9/3A and 3.3/11/2.25A (28W) for Galaxy 10 5G (QC 3.0)
- 5/9/12V and 2/1.67/2.1A for its tablets PD 2.0
- The Note10+ can use a special 10V/4.5A (45W) charger, but if you use QC 3.0 or 4.0 chargers it only charges at 27W.
Motorola’s TurboPOwer is more a marketing term and it basically QC 2.0 in disguise unless using a MediaTek SoC.
- 15 is 9/12V and 1.2-1.67A (15W)
- 25 is 5/9/12 and 2.15-2.85A (25W)
- 30 is 5V/5.7A (28.5W) – Motorola needs to use batteries that can handle the Amperage.
MediaTek Pump Express
MediaTek has QC 2.0 compatible charging on some of its chipsets.
- 2.0+ is 5-20V in .5V increments 3-4.5A (maximum 15W) – works with Micro-USB cables to 10W
- 3.0 is 3-6V in 10-20mV increments 5A (25-30W) – USB-C only and three-stage – Regular, Turbo 1 (, and Turbo 2 (6V/2A/15W) – PD 2.0 compatible
- 4.0 is 3-6V (10-20mV increments 5A (25-30W) – supports 15W Qi charger. PD 1 compatible
GadgetGuy’s take – USB, Thunderbolt and Power Delivery is a whole lot of mumbo jumbo
We put this reference together a year ago because we get so many claims about fast charging or USB-C PD that we needed to develop a reference, free from marketing BS.