In the beginning, there was a router, and the strongest routers ruled. But the little routers revolted and, in a Lilliputian-like effort have toppled, or at least made a dent in the big guy’s supremacy. Enter Mesh WiFi and you need to read this before you buy a router of any type.
Mesh WiFi simply means a number of smaller Wi-Fi connected routers to cover a home with single sign-on (SSID), seamless roaming and help to extend coverage in difficult areas.
This tutorial seeks to show both the strengths and weaknesses of Mesh WiFi and when to use it.
What a router?
A router sets up a private home network. It distributes via wire (Ethernet) or wirelessly (Wi-Fi) an internet signal two ways – down and up (anywhere from a few megabits per second (Mbps) on ADSL to 100/40Mbps for NBN top-tier).
But more importantly, you can share resources like network-attached storage (NAS) or streaming audio or video from a media server. Here you want the maximum internal network access speed regardless of the internet speed.
Now I need to get techy for a bit.
The majority of Wi-Fi devices like laptops, smartphones, games consoles and IoT are Wi-Fi N or later. These connect to the routers 2.4Ghz or 5Ghz channels. So if you have an N 2.4Ghz device the maximum it will connect at is 433Mbps.
- A 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 ,36, 48, 54Mbps
- B 1, 2, 5.5, 11Mbps
- G 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54Mbps
- N (2.4Ghz) up to 433 Mbps
- N (5Ghz) 1024 QAM up to 966Mbps – now called Wi-Fi 4
- AC (2.4GHz) up to 866Mbps
- AC (5Ghz) up to 4,334Mbps – now called Wi-Fi 5
- AX (2.4GHz) up to 1,200Mbps – Now called Wi-Fi 6
- AX (5GHz) up to 4,800Mbps with the potential to go higher to 11Gbps
Remember Wi-Fi is half-duplex (can only transmit or receive – not at the same time as full-duplex can). In reality, a single 2.4GHz band may state 866Mbps but if you connect say four devices it gets 100Mbps half-duplex and the router can only talk to one device at a time. Wi-Fi is so
A traditional router has either one band (Wi-Fi N or earlier) – 2.4Ghz offering up to 433Mbps. Wi-Fi AC usually has dual-band (2.4GHz, 433Mbps and 5Ghz, 866Mbps) and Tri-band (adds an extra 5GHz band).
Here is a list of current AC router speeds
|Type||2.4 GHz ban|
|2.4 GHz band config|
[all 40 MHz]
|5 GHz band|
|5 GHz band config|
[all 80 MHz]
|AC450||–||–||433||1 stream @ MCS 9|
|AC600||150||1 stream @ MCS 7||433||1 stream @ MCS 9|
|AC750||300||2 streams @ MCS 7||433||1 stream @ MCS 9|
|AC1000||300||2 streams @ MCS 7||650||2 streams @ MCS 7|
|AC1200||300||2 streams @ MCS 7||867||2 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC1300||433||2 streams @ 256-QAM||867||2 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC1300||–||–||1,300||3 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC 1350||433||3 streams @ MCS 7||867||2 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC1450||433||3 streams @ MCS 7||975||3 streams @ MCS 7|
|AC1600||300||2 streams @ MCS 7||1,300||3 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC1700||866||4 streams @ 256-QAM||866||2 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC1750||433||3 streams @ MCS 7||1,300||3 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC1900||600||3 streams @ 256-QAM||1,300||3 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC2100||866||4 streams @ 256-QAM||1,300||3 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC2200||433||3 streams @ MCS 7||1,733||4 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC2300||567||4 streams @ MCS 7||1,625||5 streams @ MCS 7|
|AC2350||600||4 streams @ MCS 7||1,733||4 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC2600||866||4 streams @ 256-QAM||1,733||4 streams @ MCS 9|
|AC3000||433||3 streams @ MCS 7||1,300 + 1,300||3 streams @ MCS 9 x 2|
|AC3150||966||4 streams @ 1024-QAM||2,167||4 streams @ 1024-QAM|
|AC3200||600||3 streams @ 256-QAM||1,300 + 1,300||3 streams @ MCS 9 x 2|
|AC5000||966||4 streams @ MCS 7||2,167 + 2,167||4 streams @ 1024-QAM x 2|
The 2.4Ghz band can tansmit about 30-50 metres and the 5Ghz 10-15 metres – far less if through windows, walls or doors.
All you need to know is that one of the current most powerful AC tri-band routers is an AC5300, MU-MIMO D-Link DIR-895L or its modem/router version the Cobra. Let’s call them the V8 supercar approach, and they are great in straight lines and up hills (raw grunt).
Now to the problem – location, location, location
A router is placed where it can connect to the internet point (ADSL or NBN). Mostly this is not well placed to cover the typical Australian home or apartment. The best placement for a router is equidistant from all the devices that connect to it. Mesh WiFi can be an answer but there is no substitute for correct router placement in the first place!
A Mesh WiFi network comprises a smaller ‘master’ router and one or more ‘slave’ nodes that talk to each other. Let’s call this the Electric Vehicle approach where four smaller individual electric motors power the four wheels and talk to each other to get maximum speed (‘distributed routing’).
The Mesh theory is that the master transmits a signal. The slave re-transmits to client devices. What happens if the signal is weak to start with? Slaves cannot ‘amplify’ a signal.
Well it gets worse! If you have multiple levels the only way Mesh can work is if the master has line-of-sight visibility to all slaves and transmission distances are kept to no more than 10 metres if you want a 5GHz signal. The diagram below – well it is marketing hype and does not work! And read on because not all Mesh is equal!